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Modifications to the AKT software

Current version: 5.39

1. Only change is a bug fix to WinProlog ver 5.000. This cures the mouse error in OLE transfers to Excel.


1. AKT5 now built with the new LPA WinProlog compiler (version 5.000)

2. AKT5 can now transfer the complete contents of the 'Tool output results' dialog to a Microsoft Word file. (Text and Tables WYSIWYG )

3. Selecting 'Copy to Clipboard' on the object and topic hierarchy windows will now automatically create a copy of the graphic window with a size appropriate for the hierarchy.

4. To interrupt the running of a tool or some other AKT5 process, the user needs to use 'CTRL & DEL' instead of 'CTRL & BREAK' or 'CTRL & PAUSE'. This is a change introduced by the new LPA WinProlog software.

5. User can no longer attempt to attach a memo to a source before the creation of the source

6. Formal terms dialog now updated correctly after editing a formal term.
7. Alignment of object and topic names and their connecting lines has been improved for the object hierarchy and topic hierarchy tree displays.

1. Transferring lists to Excel resulted in the list elements being concatenated together. A comma has now been added to separate the elements.

2. There was a problem with the tool 'knowledge_base_report' when the tool was run on KBs that contained duplicate topic definitions. AKT5 now removes any duplicate topics during the load of a knowledge base to eliminate this problem.

3. AKT5 will also now remove any duplicate formal terms during the load of a knowledge base.

4. The system tools:

have had their arities changed to zero and a user choice of KB added for when more than one KB is loaded.

5. In the 'Diagram Selection Type' group of buttons there was no message informing the user that there were no causes or effects associated with the chosen statement. This has been rectified.

6. When transferring the results from the 'objects_attributes_table' to Excel after running on a large knowledge base with many attributes and values, it was possible for AKT5 to fail with the error 'Backtrack Stack Full'. The code has now been optimised to avoid this problem.

7. If objects without any attributes are chosen for the tool 'object_attributes_analysis', then the tool fails without warning the user of the lack of attributes. The tool now gives a warning.

1. The predicate free/2 re-instated after problem opening diagrams.

2. The 'Install update.txt' file has been updated (item 4) to show how to check AKT5's memory resources.


1. Modified the 'Object Details', 'Append to', 'Detach', 'Memo' and 'View Tree' buttons in the 'Object hierarchy details' dialog to process part/2 compound objects.

2. Updated formatItem/2 to include the part/2 compound object.

3. Added 'Memory available (Kbyte)' item to the top level menu 'File'.

4. Ensured that the 'formal term' dialog is  updated after selecting 'Save' in the 'formal term details' dialog.

5. The 'Search options' in the 'Boolean Search Dialog' have been revised and extended. The user now has the facility to restrict the search to the formal statement, the statement's conditions or the statement's sources.

6. The installation file 'install.txt' has been updated to reflect the changes to the START window in 'Windows 8' (this file is in the AKT5 installation folder - usually C:\Program Files\AKT5 or "C:\Program Files (x86)" for 64 bit systems)


1. Warning about 'statement not selected' when KB has no statements has been removed from the statement card.

2. Numerical/All Statements buttons not updating statement card correctly after deleting statements. Problem fixed after ensuring statement DialogLists/2 was updated.

3. Transferring tables to Excel failedif any of the table entries were non atomic or numeric eg: range(2,10). Problem corrected by ensuring all cell data is atomised before sending to Excel.

4. Problem with subobject and superobject buttons on 'New Topic dialog' not working has been fixed. Due to lack of a newtopic_handler definition for the radiobuttons.

5. Problem with Boolean search when a Source string included an apostrophe has been fixed.

6. Added cut to formaltermdetails/2 definition. Ensures that details dialog closes first time for sources that are identical except for their suffixes. (central_province_kenya_june13.kb)

7. The 'Boolean Search' dialog search options were changed to allow a user to ignore searches of a statement's Sources or Conditions.

8. Added to the 'Boolean search' dialog: the facility for the user to list the sources that have a selected 'location' (uses the 'Detail button')

9. Added to the 'Boolean search' dialog: the facility for the user to list the sources that contain a selected 'user value' (uses the 'Detail button')

10. Updated all the 'Show use in hierarchies' buttons to display the results in a list dialog.

11. Various dialogs have been re-sized to enable longer parameters to be read.


1. The fix for bug 5-32/item 1 was inserted in the wrong position. Now corrected.


1. French help file added (16/05/13)


1. Latest help file added (14/05/13)


1. Bug associated with searching an empty list of statements has been corrected. (booleanSearch/4)

2. The original DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange) mechanism for communicating with Excel has been removed from AKT5 and replaced  by OLE (Object Linking and Embedding). OLE is now used both to communicate with Excel and to open Web browsers.

3. There is a new HELP menu item 'AKT5 web site' which currently opens 'Internet Explorer' at the Bangor University's Agroecological Knowledge web site.

4. The saving of tabulated data in Excel has been updated to allow multiple tool outputs to be displayed concurrently in different Excel workbooks; this allows cutting and pasting between them.


1. Selection of 'Object Hierarchies' in the 'Used in formal definitions' box of the formal terms dialog now sets the 'Formal term type' box to 'object'

2. Added 'Aider' to the AKT5 Help menu for the French version of AKT5 Help.

3. The diagram button 'Nav/Step' has been relabelled 'Navigate' and the associated help document updated.


1. Modified booleanSearch/3 to enable the user to restrict a boolean search to statements that have a condition.

2. Modified booleanSearchDialog/0 to include the 'Restrict search to a statement's condition' in the group of search options.

3. Extended the KB/Statements dialog to display numerical/category lists for 'all statements' /conditional statements. (includes a count of the number of displayed statements)

4. Extended the 'Formal terms' dialog to display (a) unused terms (b) terms used only in Statements (c) terms used only in Conditions (d) terms used in object hierarchies.

5. Extended the 'Boolean Search' results dialog to switch the matching statements between 'All statements' and 'Conditional statements'. numerical and category lists of conditional

6. If terms with a formal_term/5 definition are also used as synonyms for other terms with formal_term/5 definitions, then it was possible to have the 'Show use in statements' button greyed out in the formal details dialog. (Although this does not effect the boolean search results and AKT5 warns the user when loading the Kb of the duplication). An extra check has now been added to ensure that if a formal term is also used as a synonym then the formal details are shown for the formal term. (The user should remove the duplication)

7. Updated the predicate glossary_terms/3 to use the predicate originalOrTransposed/3. This ensures that all use of glossary_terms/3 will receive the same list of formal terms whether the Kb is transposed or not.

8. Removed the bug that could cause a fail when attempting to delete a 'Welcome Memo' bitmap for a Kb that does not have one or for a Kb with transposed formal terms.

1. Implemented a general method for making non-scrollable dialogs - scrollable.

2. Made the WELCOME memo - scrollable.

3. Re-positioned the Diagram Undo button within the Explore group to avoid any confusion about what operations can be undone.

4. The new AKT5 built-in help file is now produced using a combination of 'Microsoft Word' and 'Microsoft HTML Workshop Help' applications.

5. The HELP - source, contents and index files have been brought up to date.

6. Re-positioned the various memo dialogs to open towards the top of the screen.

1. The problem with isolated diagram nodes that occasionally disapear has been fixed.

2. The Boolean Search Dialog has been updated to again include a 'create topic' button.


1. Problem saving the welcome memo for a new Kb has been fixed.


1. The problem of AKT5 ignoring the 'number of sources' option in boolean search dialog has been fixed.


1. The problem of AKT5 going into a loop when appending a topic to a topic hierarchy has been fixed. It occurred when appending a topic whose search statements were not a subset of the hierarchy's search statements.


1. The KB/Topics dialog has been updated.

2. Bug associated with 'Show use in statements' button in formal term details dialog fixed.


1. Some more cosmetic changes made to the Welcome dialog.


1. The Knowledge Base Welcome Memo dialog has been made smaller to fit more easily on laptops.


1. The Knowledge Base Welcome Memo dialogs have been updated to make details of the knowledge base more accessible.

2. The System Tool 'knowledge_base_report' now includes details of the knowledge categories.


1. AKT5 now uses a list of statement numbers in the 'Knowledge Category' search strings.

2. Whenever statements are deleted and the Kb is saved, AKT5 will automatically renumber the remaining statements on the next load of the Kb. During this process the 'Knowledge Category' search strings will be updated with the revised list of numbers wherever necessary.

3. During the creation of an object hierarchy the user will be prompted to fill in details of the source of the information for the hierarchy.


1. 'Knowledge categories' now supported by AKT5. They are a special type of topic whose search string consists only of 'formal statements' which uniquely identify statements within a Kb.

2. The item 'KB/Knowledge Categories' has been added to the KB menus.

3. 'Knowledge categories' have their own versions of the 'Topic' and 'Topic details' dialogs.

4. 'Knowledge categories' added to the list of terms available in the Boolean search dialog.


1. A statement can now be included in a knowledge category topic by the addition of its Formal definition to a knowledge category's (topic) search string.

2. The statement details dialog has been updated to include a 'Topic/Knowledge Category' button

3. Selecting the 'Topic/Knowledge Category' button brings up a new dialog which allows the user to (a) check which knowledge categories a statement belongs to (b) add the statement to a category (c) delete the statement from a category.

4. The 'search options' in the Boolean search dialog are now automatically set to a topic's search options whenever a topic is selected.

5. Errors in definitions of includeHierarchyObjects/5 for subobjects and superobjects have been corrected.

6. Error in the definition of saveTopic/4 for edited topics with parent hierarchies has been corrected.

7. Extra definitions of combineSearchTerms/2 added to cope with if(Statement,Condition).

1. It is now possible for users to create new topic (or statement) categories with a search string in the form of a list e.g. [1,3,10,202] where the numbers in the list are statement numbers. When a new statement is defined it can be assigned to one or more topic categories by inserting its statement number within the topic(s) searchstring. Older knowledge bases can also have their statements assigned retrospectively to these new topic categories.

2. The system tool 'check_for_duplicate_statements/1' has been updated to give the user the option of deleting any duplicate statements found in the knowledge base.

3. If the system tool 'knowledge_base_report' was run on a knowledge base which contained transposed formal terms and synonyms, then spurious warnings were given of duplicated formal terms. This problem has been corrected.

4. In the topic details dialog the buttons 'Show use in statements' and 'Show use in hierarchies' now work correctly.

5. 'topic hierarchies' added to the drop down list on the Boolean search dialog.


1. Unneccessary statement lists removed from the output of the interactions_amongst_formal_terms/0 tool for any interactions between identical terms.

2. The inability of the tool object_attribute_analysis/1 to print object hierarchy layouts has been fixed.

3. Added a message, identifying the knowledge base, within the tool output for the following tools inconsistent_attribute_statements/0 redundancy_summary/0 statement_induction_up_a_hierarchy/0

4. Updated the System Query tool to make the knowledge base selectable within the tool.

5. Added the Explore/Step, Explore/Sources, Explore/Causes and Explore/Effects buttons to the RHS of Diagram window.

6. Added the facility to explore the knowledge base in a diagram using a statements 'number of sources' as the threshhold for whether the statement is displayed in a diagram window.


1. The system tool 'objects_attributes_table/1' was returning an incorrect list of statement identifiers for object/attribute combinations. This has been corrected.

2. The system tool 'objects_and_their_attributes/1' was returning an incorrect list of statement identifiers for object/attribute combinations. This has been corrected.



1. Added check for an empty source list to derivations_in_use/2 to avoid problem when saving a 'hierarchic_diagrams Kb'

2. Added close(Path) to new_kb/0 and open_kb/0. Avoids being unable to save a Kb because a Kb file still had an open connection with AKT5 due to a previous Kb file operation.

3. Added close(Path) to open_file/2 to avoid similar problem to that in (2).



1. The problem associated with the check to see if any of a formal terms synonyms were used in object hierarchies, has been fixed.

2. The problem associated with the saving of the picture's memo information has been fixed.


1. Case of the dissapearing line/arrow fixed.

2. Problems with a MEMO button shadow in object/topic hierarchy dialogs fixed.

3. Further minor adjustments made to the object/topic hierarchy dialogs.


1. Added check to avoid 'inferred' statements being
included in any lists of derivation statements.

2. Parameters adjusted to extend size of hierarchic
tree displays to cope with long Hierarchic names.

3. Remodelled the 'KB/Topics' dialog.

4. Remodelled the 'KB/Object hierarchies' dialog.

5. Remodelled the 'KB/Topic hierarchies' dialog.


1. Corrected the problem with 'Show use in hierarchies' button in 'formal term details' dialog. (Occurred with synonyms that belonged to hierarchies after transposing formal terms)



1. Reversed the change showing confusing information in lists of hierarchy objects.
2. Added ’Search statement formal terms only’ check box to Boolean search. Default is ‘not set’ ie: AKT5 will search Statements, Sources, Derivations etc. When ‘set’ AKT5 will only search the components of the formal statement definitions.
3. Added ‘Allow multiple source matches’ check box to Boolean search. Default is ‘not set’ ie: AKT5 will search Statements, Sources(single), Derivations etc. When ‘set’ AKT5 will search Statements, Sources(multiple), Derivations etc. (same as 4-75)
4. Updated the ‘sources_table’ tool with the number of statements attributable to each source. (It will now take a few extra seconds to run because of all the searches). This effectively makes the tool ‘sources_summary’ redundant. I can remove it in the next version of AKT5 if there are no objections.



1. Problems with showing formal term details after transposition of formal terms has been fixed.

2. New system tool 'sources_table/0' added to System Tools / Knowledge Analysis / Single Kb. It displays in tabular form the name, location, gender and label values for each source in the Kb.



1. Bug associated with opening source details for a newly created Kb' has been fixed.

2. Bug with primitive tool source_details/4 not working for Type=name has been fixed.



1. The system tool objects_and_their_attribute/1 has been renamed to objects_attributes_table/1. This updated version allows the user to start the analysis from 'attribute' or 'object' selection.

(Apart from the tool changes 4-72 is identical to 4-69)



1. The system tool objects_and_their_attribute/1 has been updated to allow the user more control over the contents of the tabular results.

2. A new system tool object_attribute_analysis/1 has been added to allow more analysis of attribute/value information possessed by knowledge base objects.

(Apart from above changes, 4-71 is identical to 4-69)



1. Automatic removal of unused 'User Label Values' when a knowledge base is opened.

2. When editing Genders, 'User Labels' and 'User Values', AKT5 will now display the original term that is to be edited.

3. 'Memo' menu items not being 'grayed out' when switching to a loaded Kb or ceating a new KB. Problem corrected.

4. The System Tools 'merge_External_Statements' and 'merge_formal_terms' have been deleted.

5. A new comprehensive tool 'merge_knowledge_bases' has been introduced to give more flexibility when merging knowledge bases.

6. The 'Show use in statement' and 'Show use in hierarchies' buttons in the formal term details dialog now show the status of a term immediately the dialog is opened.

7. Updated ergonomics of entering source user labels and values.

8. AKT5 now compiled on the newly released Prolog Development Environment 'LPA WinProlog 4.900'.



1. Bug in drawing an effects path that includes a causes2way statement has been fixed.

2. User introductions added to the system tool categories for 'Knowledge Analysis' and 'Knowledge Consistency'.

3. An extended CAFNET acknowledgement added to the eight tools developed with their funding.


1. A new tool 'common_knowledge' has been incorporated in the system tool category 'Knowledge analysis/Single Kb'.

2. The system tool 'explore_management_actions' has been deleted from the 'Knowledge analysis/Single Kb' category.

3. Acknowledgements to the CAFNET project have been added to the descriptions of tools produced during AKT5 development for that project.

4. The tool 'objects_and_parts_information' in the Knowledge analysis/Single Kb tool category showed that some older KBs had duplicate formal terms listed in the output. To remove any duplicates, load the user tool file 'delete_duplicate_formal_terms' and run the tool 'delete_duplicate_formal_terms' within that file.

5. Checks for duplicate 'formal term' and subobject definitions have been incorporated into the system tool 'knowledge_base_report'. If any duplicates are detected they can be removed by running the user tool 'delete_duplicate_formal_terms' as above.

6. The tool 'sources_summary' has been updated to show the number of statements that are associated with the gender of a source(s).

7. Minor text changes made to 'hierarchical_objects_diagram'. Tool will draw both link and causal statements and display either or both as required.

8. The tabular output of the tool 'object_hierarchy_report' is now in hierarchical order rather than alphabetical order.

9. The tool 'compare_causes_and_effects' has been extended to include 'location' and 'user labels' in its filtering options.

10. The name of the tool 'single_term_comparison' has been changed to 'formal_term_comparison'.

11. The name of the tool 'source_comparison' has been changed to 'source_summary'.

12. The tool 'source_summary' has been extended to allow 'multiple' or 'all' choices for type of information to be output.

13. The System tools 'topic_assignment', 'topics' and 'topic_hierarchy_assignment' have all been deleted.

14. The System tool 'topic_summary' replaces all the tools deleted in item 13.

15. Added a new Primitive formal term tool 'tidy_definitions'. This will replace any definition just containing space, new line or carriage return characters with a blank definition ``. The tool will operate on all loaded knowledge bases.

16. The tool 'definitions_compared' has been updated to display a tabulated list of definitions for individual, groups or 'all' formal terms.

17. The tool 'definition_use' has been deleted. Superceded by changes to 'definitions_compared'.

18. The tool 'formal_term_consistency' now only checks for terms with different definitions in different knowledge bases. The KB usage table is already better represented in the tool 'formal_terms_table'.

19. The tool 'delete_redundant_items' has been removed.

20. The tool 'isolated_causal_statements' now only lists truly isolated statements.

21. The output from the tool 'redundancy_summary' has been updated.

22. The tool 'statement_induction_up_a_hierarchy/3' has been replaced by 'statement_induction_up_a_hierarchy/0' which asks user to select the required knowledge base and hierarchy.

23. The bug in the tool 'inconsistent_causal_statements/1' showing inconsistencies in the same statement has been corrected.

24. The tool 'inconsistent_attribute_statements/3' has been changed to 'inconsistent_attribute_statements/0' and the display of the results improved.

25. The tool 'species_report/2' has been replaced by 'species_report/0' which asks user to select the required knowledge base and species. The tool output also has an improved format.

26. The tool 'statement_up_a_hierarchy/3' has been replaced by 'statement_up_a_hierarchy/0' which asks the user to select a knowledge base and a hierarchy. The problems with the original tool have been fixed and the tool output is more informative.

27. The tool 'objects_and_their_attributes/1' has been extensively revised to make it a much more flexible tool. It now includes options for summary/detailed object definitions and combines rows of attribute values where possible.



1. The 'System Tools/General/edit_knowledge_base_source/0' tool has been updated to correct the problem with editing User Lable values.

2. The 'System Tools/Knowledge Analysis/Single Kb/objects_and_their_attributes/1' tool has been updated to correct the problem where not all subobject attribute/values are being displayed in the output tables.



1. The AKT5 Tools menu has been updated to display the new tool categories.

2. System Tools have been re-assigned to the new categories.

3. Tools have been renamed where appropriate.

4. The bug associated with the 'knowledge base report' tool when you select both 'derivation' and 'sources' has been fixed.

5. 'objects_and_parts' tool now works ok.

6. The supplementary 'Browse Tool List' menus and dialogs, (called when you are already displaying a tool's details) have been updated to reflect the changes in the Top Level 'Tools' menu.

7. The 'boolean search' tool has been updated to give an error message if only the fuzzy option is selected. (same as manual boolean search)



1. Problem with 'Formal Term Details' dialog not displaying parts and partofs for a transposed formal term has been fixed.

2. Problem with 'Formal Term Details' dialog not displaying parts and partofs for a non transposed term (ie: no synonym in chosen position) in a transposed Kb has been fixed.

3. 'Delete Node/Link' button on diagram can now just remove the link if required.

4. Can now restore any hidden nodes or links on a diagram by using the 'Refresh' button.

5. 'Formal details' dialog adjusted to avoid thumbnail picture overlapping 'add' button.

6. Automatic deletion of memos attached to object hierarchies when the hierarchy is deleted.

7. A 'Display' primitive tool 'tidy_diagrams/0' introduced to remove any redundant node/9 definitions left over in a knowledge base after diagram construction. (eg: unlinked nodes left on a diagram when a knowlege base is saved.)



1. Inhibited editing of statements except via the menu items KB/Statements and KB/Boolean Search

2. The system tool 'object_hierarchies/1' has been been renamed as 'object_hierarchy_statements/1' This tool will now allow you to choose between a statement summary for all hierarchies (as in original tool) or detailed statement information for all objects in the selected hierarchy.

3. The system tool 'source_information/1' has been updated to include a statement summary for source locations and user defined labels.

4. Bug associated with more than one full stop in a file's pathname has been fixed.

5. Problem with 'Show hierarchy use' button in formal terms dialog after transposing objects has been corrected.

6. Bug in system tool 'inconsistent_attribute statements' has been fixed.

7. Incorporated changes to ensure diagram labels returned to their original values after transposing formal terms and synonyms and then restoring the terms back to their original positions.

8. Latest version (4.800) of WinProlog now used to compile AKT5.


Same as 4-60 with temporal code.



1. New primitive tool 'formal_term_definitions' added to 'Formal terms' category. Allows user to select a formal term 'Type' and displays a table of all the definitions for terms of that type.

2. The Knowledge Evaluation system tool 'knowledge_base_report' has been updated to include the option of a 'Summary of statement derivation usage'.

3. Initial X,Y coordinates and scrolling ranges adjusted to cope with long names when displaying Hierarchic Trees.

4. The problem with changing diagram fonts has been fixed.

5. The tool 'restore_original_formal_terms/1' has been enhanced to check if a transposition of formal terms and synonyms already exists.

6. The Radio Button options dialog can now cope with up to thirty six choices on a 1280 X 800 screen.


1. The tool 'statements_formal_components/6' has been added to the Statement category of the primitive tools. It replaces 'statements_formal_components/4' and is required to support the latest CAFNET 'User Tools'.

2. The primitive list/3 has been updated with a 'fill_in' option to instantiate any variables in a list to a specified value.

3. The X origin on hierarchic tree displays  has been increased to allow for longer object or topic names.



1. Corrected 'Save' tool problem.

2. Updated the tool 'Details' dialog to cope with tool names starting with a capital letter as well as incorporating a space within their name.

3. The tool 'extract_term_parameters/2' has been added to the Miscellaneous category of the primitive tools. Required to support the later 'User Tools'.

4. The tool 'statements_formal_components/4' has been added to the Statement category of the primitive tools. Required to support the later 'User Tools'.



1. Enabled formal terms of type 'value' to be created as integers. The grammar allows this but was only enabled when formal terms are defined as part of creating a new statement.

2. Deleting integer formal terms now works ok.

3. The creation of a macro definition for user tool with name of the form 'Abcd' or 'Abcd'(Kb) was not working correctly. This has been fixed.

4. Pressing the 'Details' button after selecting a user tool with name of the form 'Abcd' or 'Abcd'(Kb) showed a blank details window. This has been fixed.

5. Pressing the 'Syntax Check' button after selecting a user tool with name of the form 'Abcd' or 'Abcd'(Kb) gave a syntax error even when the tool syntax was correct. This has been fixed.

6. Pressing the 'Run' button after selecting a user tool with name of the form 'Abcd' or 'Abcd'(Kb) gave the error message 'Tool Aborted'. This has been fixed.

7. Pressing the 'Save' button after selecting a user tool with name of the form 'Abcd' or 'Abcd'(Kb) failed. This has been fixed.

8. Updates made to the 'Tranfer to Excel' function to allow correct representation of multiple tables within Excel.


1. Made the size of individual controls within the statements dialog box, adjustable.

2. It was possible to lose a statement if editing a statement's formal terms to something that duplicated an existing statement with a different source if the edit was cancelled
or failed one of a number of checks. This problem has been corrected.

3. Creating a new tool could get the error message `Tool definition contains a call to an undefined tool` for some correct tool definitions. This problem is nowq fixed.

4. Various cosmetic changes made to the tool 'Details' and 'Description' windows. This improves the readability of the help and tool definitions.

5. Other cosmetic changes made to the KB/Statements and KB/Object Hierarchy dialogs to improve sizing and readability.



1. 'Details' button on Boolean Search dialog now works correctly for Source terms.

2. Source names of the form robert(45) can now be searched for in the Boolean Search dialog.

3. The system tool 'redundant_sources(Kb,Sources)' has been updated to work with statements that may or may not use derivations.

4. Bug associated with an empty derivation list [] has been corrected.



1. The user actions associated with the sources 'User Defined Parameters' have been updated and extended to remove some problems and provide more functionality.

2. The Attribute, Process and Action buttons on  the lhs of the diagram window required updating to include the option part(Object,Part) wherever Object was used in
the statement syntax.



1. The system tool 'merge_formal_terms' has been updated to ensure the formal term's definitions are preserved.

2. User now gets warning messages if an attempt is made to create or edit formal terms of the form sup-sac or foot and mouth

3. New HELP incorporating images added to AKT5.

4. The system tool 'objects and their attributes' has been extended to allow the choice of whether 'Causal' statements should be included in the search. It also reacts in a different way to searches on either individual or multiple objects. In the case of multiple objects it will insert the atomic name of the object in the OBJECTS column. In the case of a single object it will expand the entry in the OBJECTS column to include the parts, action and process definitions as necessary.



1. Saving a new statement is now cancelled if user rejects the saving of any of the statement's formal terms.

2. Problem with editing formal terms of the form 'a and b' has been fixed.

3. Problem with freezing after 'All Statements' button selected has been fixed.


1. Problem of original statement being deleted when editing a statement is unsuccessful has been fixed.



1. Error in identifying correct duplicate statement for the appending of an additional source has been fixed.



1. Bug associated with statements not being correctly updated after editing one of their Source/Derivation's  has been fixed.

2. Check added to AKT5 to stop users adding an identical source with a different derivation  to a statement.

3. Cancelling the creation of a new hierarchic object now works correctly.


1. The problem associated with editing the source parameters of sources that include parameters of the form '30-50' in ('User Defined Parameters') has been corrected.


1. Bug associated with editing sources and subsequent statement searches now fixed.

2. Extra checks incorporated to prevent multiple instances of an object occurring in the same hierarchy when editing the name of an object to that of an object that already exists.

3. Some Source dialogs and messages have been updated.


1. 'Boolean Search' and searches using Tools now include the facility to restrict results to statements with a specified number of sources.

2. Bug fix for adding blank synonyms

3. Bug fix for tool searches.

4. Bug fix for 'Derivation' button on the Statement Sources dialog.

5. Bug fix for incorrect 'gender' on the Source Details dialog.

6. Included 'unknown' as a system derivation.


1. Corrected problem of no default gender values when creating a new knowledge base.

2. Corrected problem of no default derivation values when creating a new knowledge base.


1. Added new menu item 'KB/Derivations'

2. Added new Boolean search category 'derivations'


1. All historical source definitions within Knowledge Base statements and 'source details' are now converted to the latest format when a KB is loaded. (includes 'Location' and four user label values)

2. From this release all new statements will require a 'Derivation' when the source of a statement is assigned.

3. New 'Derivation' buttons are included in the Statement and 'Statement Details' dialogs to manage their usage.
4. Boolean search includes 'Derivation' terms.

5. A new KB/Memos item has been added to the menu. This scans all the memos in the Kb, enables appropriate menu items and greys out the rest.

6. A new HELP, in the form of a compiled HTML file, has been added to AKT5. New HELP updates can be incorporated without the need for a new release of AKT5.

7.The diagram window has been updated to improve the sizing and positioning of the Control and Function buttons.

8. An explanation of the meaning of diagram symbols  is included in the new HELP.

9. The gender defaults are 'male' and 'female' but other names can be created by the user.

10. Heap space increased to 4 MBytes to enable the use of very large lists and data structures. This is typically required for the construction of a diagram to represent all the statements in a large knowledge base.

11. The bug associated with a failure to update a statement's source attributions after changing a source identifier has been fixed.



1. Extensive update of the User Defined Parameters used in source definitions.

2. Source's gender parameter now restricted to user defined set of definitions.

3. Duplicate Object/Attribute/Value rows removed from table where two or more objects share the same superobject. (objects_and_their_attributes/1 tool)

4. Problem with selecting 'Cancel' button causing a loop, now fixed. (Occurred when selection dialog was used in tools)

5. The comparative analysis system tool 'boolean_search' now includes fuzzy searches.

6. The primitive 'statements_search/6' tool also includes the fuzzy search option.


1. Updates to the new system tool 'objects_and _their_attributes/1'


1. AKT5 now using LPA Win-Prolog 4700.

2. 'Boolean Search' allows 'fuzzy' searches.

3. New system tool 'objects_and _their_attributes/1' introduced within 'Knowledge Evaluation' to  allow users to produce a table summarising all the attributes and values that are defined for selected objects.

4. Names of new object hierarchies can now only be selected from existing objects.

5. /Z option removed from AKT5 parameters allowing facility to continue after GPF errors.

6. Horizontal scrolling enabled on topic and topic hierarchy menus.

7. The word 'If' added to conditional statements on diagrams


1. Removed automatic display of details when a term is selected in the formal term dialog.

2. Further amendments to the System Tool merge_External_Statements


1. AKT5 did not check for clashes between synonym and formal term names if you selected the 'add' synonym button on the 'KB/Formal terms/Formal term' details dialog. Check now incorporated.

2. The deletion of inverse statements generated by causal2way relationships is now unaffected by the ordering oftheir object definitions.

3. The System Tool merge_External_Statementshas been updated to remove any bugs and  improve the tool output.

4. The System Tool merge_formal_terms has been updated to remove any bugs and  improve the tool output.



(1) Old calendar implementation removed.

(2) New calendar implementation introduced; based on calendar(Start,Duration) formal terms of type 'value'

(3) Tools output can now be transferred directly to MicroSoft Excel.



(1) AKT5 is now based on Win-Prolog 4600.

(2) 'Select Kb' now displays the 'Welcome Memo'

(3) The AKT title now has only one instance of the current KB's name.

(4) CALENDAR dialog now available from the KB/Calendar menu item.


4-27 Released April 2007

(1) The tool 'merge_formal_terms' modified to stop duplication of formal terms.
(2) The tool 'redundant_formal_terms/2' has been modified to allow the user to choose to delete any redundant formal terms.



(1) Modified window control creation to ensure Vietnamese characters are reproduced correctly in window dialogs.
(2) The system tool restore_formal_terms/1  has been modified to ensure that any saved transposed knowledge bases, can later be restored to their  original state.



(1) New system tool 'merge_formal_terms' added to the 'GENERAL' category.

(2) Colour of diagram object nodes changed to brown.



(1) Problem with the Thai and Chinese characters not being displayed has been fixed.

(2) The comparative analysis tool 'single_term_comparison/0' has been updated to improve the presentation of the results.



(1) If two nodes on a diagram are looped together, instead of being connected with a single red line they will now be connected by two separate black lines to indicate the loop.

(2) Nodes, symbols, values and conditions snap to an invisible grid (10 pixels) to allow easy alignment of items on the diagram.

(3) Positioning of the text inside Process nodes adjusted.

(4) A 'Default' item has been added to the  list of fonts to enable easy return to system settings.

(5) Node text, symbols, values and conditions can now have their individual font definitions. The Diagram/Font menu is only active when there is a diagram visible and will only allow a user to select the fonts appropriate to the items visible in the four label modes.


4-22 Released June 2005

(1) Improved positioning of 'not' blobs on sloping link lines.

(2) Creation and refreshing of diagrams has been speeded up.

(3) The primiive print_object_hierarchies/1 has been added to the 'hierarchies' category. This gives a textual output showing all the knowledge base's object hierarchies and the relationships between the objects.

(4) The primiive print_topic_hierarchies/1 has been added to the 'topic' category. This gives a textual output showing all the knowledge base's topic hierarchies and the relationships between the topics.

(5) The primiive topic_hierarchy_details/5 has been added to the 'topic' category. This provides information about topics in a hierarchy and their relationships with other topics.



(1) Problem with a causal link having two 'not' blobs if Cause was a process or action and Effect a not statement now fixed.



(1) The rule inhibiting an object being renamed if it was a member of an object hierarchy has been removed.

(2) The option 'subobjects' has been added to the existing 'object' and 'object+subobjects' choices in the move/copy Object Hierarchy dialog.

(3) 'Disappearing nodes' problem on diagrams fixed.

(4) Label mode set to Off/Auto whenever a  new knowledge base is loaded or selected.

(5) Updated X and Y origins now used for copying diagrams to the clipboard.

(6) 'Help' button added to diagram window to encourage use of on-line diagram help.

(7) On-line diagram help updated to include latest changes to the diagram facilities.



(1) More revisions made to the diagram facilities:

(a) double clicking on either single (black) or multiple links (red) displays the
statement(s) associated with the link(s).

(b) The four positions of the 'label mode' button are - 1. Off 2. Symbols 3. Values 4. Values + Conditions

(c) User can now cycle through the label positions forward or backwards with '<' and '>' buttons.

(d) The user has the choice with an 'Auto/Manual' button between:

- manually adjusting position of symbols, values and conditions when a node is moved on the diagram
- or leaving them to move automaticallywith the node to default positions.



(1) More revisions made to the diagram facilities:

(a) All 'not' statements are clearly identified on the diagrams.

(b) Revised layout algorithm used to clarify diagram links.

(c) There are now four positions for the 'label mode' button.1. Off 2. Symbols 3. Values 4. Full labels

(d) In the new 'Values' mode (1) all attribute values are shown (2) causes1way or causes2way displayed (3) Conditional links identified(4) Any 'not' conditionals identified

(e) Position of all symbols, values, labels is preserved when the knowledge base is saved.

(f) Diagrams created in knowledge bases fromearlier versions of AKT5 will retain theirdiagram layouts and automatically be updated with new default label positions.

(g) A double left button mouse click on a diagram node will now display a list of diagram statements, rather than a list of knowledge base statements, associated with the node.



(1) Problem with the 'Causes' button in the 'diagram view' not creating all the links leading to the clicked node. (Fixed)

(2) Problem with redraw_diagram/3 drawing inferred links on the diagram when initiated from Causes, Effects or Navigate buttons on the 'diagram view'(Fixed)

(3) Extensive revisions made to the diagram facilities:
(a) Includes dynamically generating all the link lines rather than saving the information with the KB. This will save up to 20% of disk space for KBs that use a lot of diagrams.
(b) Extra 'Label mode' that allow user to display actual values for attribute nodes.
(c) 'Symbol' mode updated to clarify diagrams.

Version 4-16  released January 2005

(1) Diagram nodes now retain their current size when being moved on a diagram. (previously they went back to the default size for the node)

(2) Overlapping oblique lines and arrow heads are now coloured red.

(3) The problem with the link arrow heads to a resized node being obscured has been corrected.

(4) Automatic placement of link labels is now only carried out when a new link is created. The lables will retain their position if either of the link nodes are moved or resized. The labels can still be positioned manually by the user.

(5) Extra checks put in place to ensure that a name chosen for a global edit is not already in use by a term of an incompatible type or used in an object hiearchy.

(6) Searches now work correctly for search terms that include 'not' when used with the search options 'subobjects' and 'superobjects'.

(7) The 'Show Paths' button on AKT5 diagrams could incorrectly include a causes2way statement in the list of paths. This problem has been fixed.


Version 4-15

(1) Problem with blank synonyms causing Boolean Search to produce spurious matches has been fixed.


Version 4-14

(1) The tool compare_hierarchies/0 has been moved to the 'Knowledge Evaluation' category of the system tools.

(2) User now can choose whether or not to create a complete diagram of the knowledge base links when there are no existing diagrams.

(3) Bug associated with a formal term having multiple types (which occured only in 4-13) has been corrected.


Version 4-13

(1) A new version of LPA Prolog 4.500 is now used as the basis for the AKT5 application. This contains improvements and extra features which can be utilised by the AKT5 user interface.
(2) The tool compare_hierarchies/0 has been added to the'Comparative Analysis' category of the system tools.
(3) The tool search_names/0 has been added to the'Knowledge Evaluation' category. This allows user tocheck if the knowledge base names contain a specified search string. The tool searches all the formal term, Object hierarchy, Topic hierarchy, Synonym and Topicnames.
(4) Bug in the tool restore_formal_terms/1 has been fixed.
(5) Bug in the tool transpose_formal_terms_and_synonyms/2 causing statement syntax errors has been fixed.
(6) Bug causing excessive run time for complex tools that call a number of smaller tools has been fixed.
(7) The derived_statements_summary/1 tool has been rewritten to reduce execution time to a few seconds.
(8) The akt5.dll file is no longer required and will not be added to your AKT5 folder during installation. Any existing copy of akt5.dll should be removed from
your AKT5 folder ( eg: 'C:\Program Files\AKT5' ) to avoid any compatibility problems.


Version 4-12

(1) A new system tool objects_and_parts_information/0 in the 'Knowledge Evaluation' category allows users to display all the information about objects
and statements that make use of the expression 'part(Object,Part)' This system tool incorporates the primitives in items 2,3,4,5
(2) The primitive 'statements_components/3' has been extended to include the type 'parts'
(3) A new primitive 'object_parts/3' has been included in the 'Formal Terms' category.( Find all parts that an object may contain )
(4) A new primitive 'objects_with_parts/2' has been included in the 'Formal Terms' category. ( Find all objects that contain parts )
(5) A new primitive 'statements_with_parts/4' has been included in the 'Statements' category. ( Find statements with any combination of objects and parts )
(6) A new rule has been added to stop users using a name already in use by a source ( name, location, date, suffix ) as a formal term.
(7) A new primitive topic_details/4 has been included in the 'Topics' category to allow the user to get details about the topic. ( ie: definition, search_string and search_option)


Version 4-11

(1) A new system tool redundant_formal_terms/3 in the 'Knowledge Evaluation' category allows users to check for redundancy of any type of formal term.
(2) A new system tool redundant_statements/3 in the 'Knowledge Evaluation' category allows users to check for redundancy of any attribute or causal statements.
(3) A new system tool redundant_sources/2 in the 'Knowledge Evaluation' category allows users to check for any redundant sources in a Knowledge base.
(4) A new system tool knowledge_base_redundancy in the 'Knowledge Evaluation' category summarises any redundancy found within a selected knowledge base.
(5) A new system tool objects_without_statements/2 in the 'Knowledge Evaluation' category shows which hierarchic objects are not used by any knowledge base statements.
(6) The system tool redundant_statement_terms/2 has been deleted. Please use redundant_formal_terms/3 instead. (see note 1 above)
(7) The system tool redundant_attribute_statements/1 is deleted. Please use redundant_statements/3 instead. (see note 2 above)
(8) The system tool redundant_causal_statements/1 hasbeen deleted. Please use redundant_statements/3 instead. (see note 2 above)
(9) The rule that checks whether the name chosen for a new formal term already exists in a knowledge base has been extended to include topic names.
(10) A new system tool sources_information/0 in the 'Knowledge Evaluation' category displays the knowledge base sources, the number of statements associated with each source and number of sources for each statement containing a selected term.

Version 4-10

(1) A more comprehensive knowledge base report tool has been incorporated in the system tool category 'Knowledge Evaluation'
(2) A more comprehensive species report tool has been incorporated in the system tool category 'Knowledge Exploration'
(3) Improved boolean search algorithm.
(4) Corrected minor bug in drawing diagrams.
(5) Added 'type' option to source_details/4 primitive.
(6) Added 'topic_hierarchies' option to knowledge_base/3 primitive.
(7) Improved diagram_report/1 system tool
(8) Improved derived_statements_summary/1 system tool


Version 4-09

(1) The system tool 'edit_knowledge_base_source/0' found in the System/General category has been updated to include global editing of reference source parameters.
(2) There was a gap in AKT5's reasoning about causal nodes with the causes2way relationship. This had an effect when drawing diagrams that include causes2way statements and also the primitives (a) causal_paths/4 (b) statements_path/4 (c) get_nodes/3 (d) get_nodes/4 This has now been corrected and a note added to the relevant tools.
(3) The primitive get_nodes/3 now includes option 'no_values' which will remove all the values from a list of nodes.
(4) The primitive search_nodes/3 has been added to the 'Cause and Effect' category to allow the user to search a list of nodes for a specified term.
(5) The primitive get_statements/4 in the 'Cause and Effect' category has been modified to produce a list of formal statements rather than a list of numbered/translated statements. If the user wants to retain the original format then combine this primitive with statements_convert/4 from the Statements category.
(6) The tool search_memos/0 has been added to the 'Knowledge Evaluation' category. This tool allows the user to search memos for a particular word
or words and help identify relevant knowledge base information.
(7) The primitive list/5 has been added to the 'List' category to give the user the ability to manipulate lists of lists. This enables the organisation of columns of data in the most suitable form for tabular display.
(8) The problem with the 'Knowledge Analysis' tool causal_statement_impact/1 has been corrected.


Version 4-08

(1) A new system tool draw_hierarchic_statements has been added to the 'Knowledge Evaluation' category.This tool allows a user to choose a hierarchic object and to draw a diagram showing both
(a) The causal and link statements directly about the object
(b) The causal and link statements about its ancestors in the chosen object hierarchies, with the object's name substituted for the ancestor object.

The user can build up a set of diagrams about hierarchic objects from any loaded knowledge base and retain these diagrams within a special knowledge base called 'hierarchic_diagrams'. The majority of the facilities for manipulating diagrams can still be used and the 'hierarchic_diagrams' knowledge base can be saved to a file and re-loaded at a later date. It is important to note however, that this special knowledge base does not contain formal terms, sources, synonyms etc. It is purely a repository for the hierarchic object diagrams.


Version 4-07

(1) A new menu item Diagram/Fonts allows the user to select from a large number of font faces,sizes and styles and assign them individually to diagram nodes, labels and symbols. The current diagram is immediately updated when the new font is selected.
(2) A new menu item Tools/Fonts allows the user to select from the same set of fonts and assign them to tool results, tool definitions and tool details. Any tool dialogs containing descriptions,details or results are immediately updated when the new font is selected.
(3) There is now an improved 'Auto grammar help' facility available from the New statement dialog. This facility will 'hold the users hand' and provide all the possible statement templates at each stage of defining a new statement. As the user completes each part of the new statement, it is validated and then added together to form the complete statement. Any changes made to the AKT5 grammar in the future will automatically be reflected in the statement options.


Version 4-06

(1) widescreen laptops with unusual displays like 1280 X 800 had some of the diagrams and associated buttons missing from the display. AKT will now automatically adjust to any screen format.
(2) The bug where two identical nodes appeared on the same diagram after editing a statement has been corrected.


Version 4-05

(1) There is now a global edit facility for interview sources. This is operated via the System/General tool edit_knowledge_base_source/0. There will be an update for editing reference sources shortly.
(2) AKT5 now includes internal checking of the available program space before saving any diagram. This means that the user will be told if they are attempting to add a further diagram that will exceed the Program Space memory limit. This should ensure in future that the user cannot create a knowledge base that will be too large to load.
(3) AKT5 now outputs an error message if the user attempts to load an older knowledge base which is too large for the current memory allocation. This message refers the user to a new menu item Help/Memory which will explain how the memory allocation can be increased to allow loading of the offending knowledge base.
(4) As mentioned in 4-04 the memory allocation for AKT5 has been reduced to /V1 /Z1 /P8000 /T2000 /H2000 /B500 /R500 /L500 /O1000 /I1000 This allows for the construction of twelve complete diagrams of the treefodd knowledge base. In practice this means that users can construct many more smaller diagrams. In the odd case where someone really wants to exceed these limits then they can read the menu item on how to increase the memory allocation via a shortcut on the desktop.
(5) The 'Diagram/Show Kb Diagrams' dialog has been updated to facilitate the re-naming and deleting of diagrams. The diagram numbers now start at one.
(6) The diagram nodes used to display objects and parts on separate lines within the diagram node. This has now been changed so that object/parts will appear on the same line in any new diagrams that are constructed. Existing diagrams will not be affected.


Version 4-04

(1) When a diagram is opened or selected ( with mouse or buttons ) it now appears without any other dialogs obscuring the diagram. When required any of the open dialogs can be displayed on the screen by clicking appropriate icon on the taskbar.
(2) When a knowledge base is created, opened or selected then any open dialogs that still show details of the previous knowledge base will be deleted. This does not apply to the tool dialogs however, because they are independent of the current knowledge base.
(3) The old kb_report tool in the knowledge_evaluation category has been replaced with knowledge_base_report. There is also a couple of extra tools derived_statements_summary/1 and statements_summary/1
(4) Because of the potential problems of needing large amounts of memory for AKT5, this version uses only approx. 50% of the previous requirements. For users that must have greater memory resources, they can increase the memory available to AKT5 by altering the AKT5 parameters (see install.txt)

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